Antonius Holtmann

Bohmte  -  Bremen  -  Public Landing.
A Success Story in 19th Century Cincinnati: A Genealogical Reconstruction

"Not the life we have lived
is life, but what we remember
in order to talk about it.”

Gabriel Marcia Marquez


In April 1834 Gottfried Weber from Barenau near Engter in the Osnabrueck area went "towards America with little money in his pockets". In 1877 he had written down a 'short description' (“Kurtze beschreibung”) of his life in a small leather-bound booklet intended for his nephew in Germany.

The selective data and interpretations provided in this life story reflect the author's personal attributions of meaning and the significance he ascribes to events in his life. In retrospect Gottfried Weber reconstructs his life: his childhood in a tenant's cabin, 10 years of travelling as a baker's journeyman in Germany and The Netherlands, his time as a worker at the canal in Fort Wayne/ Indiana and later on in a quarry, his work in a flourishing hardware store in Public Landing on the Ohio river, the vineyard he managed for 5 years and finally the set-up of his own business on Main Street. According to the records of the population census Weber's assets amounted to $ 5,500 in 1860. After the Civil War (1861-65) Weber indicated in 1870 that his assets totalled $ 240,000. He had profited from the increasing needs of the rapidly growing city – and from the needs arising from the Civil War.

The non-involved biographer who looks upon past events as an outsider, seeks to reconstruct the past by blending his presentation with the version given by the writer of memoirs. He is particularly interested in data which the self-biographer did not perceive in his immediate surroundings and therefore did not recount them. For this reason a lot of information is lost for good; some information can be easily regained – other only by making an effort. And in all cases the neutral biographer is confronted with the task of deciding about how far the range of the contextual network should be extended, about which information can be interrelated and about the level of significance that should be given to the links established. G. Weber's “short description” provides starting points for this.

The thrilling, however occasionally exhausting, endeavour of producing a genealogical-biographical edition will be outlined in this paper; in this edition the peasants' letters (Antonius Holtmann (Hg.):Ferner thue ich euch zu wissen…Briefe des Johannes Heinrich zur Oeveste aus Amerika 1843-1876. Bremen: Edition Temmen 1996; currently out of stock; a complete version .  is available online.) and the soldier's letters (Antonius Holtmann (Hg.): Für Gans America Gehe ich nich Wieder Bei die Soldaten….Briefe des Ochtruper Auswanderers Theodor Heinrich Brandes aus dem amerikanischen Bürgerkrieg 1862/63. Bremen: Edition Temmen 1999) will be supplemented by Weber's memoirs of his life as a merchant. This edition is designed to encourage all those concerned with genealogical reconstructions to cautiously go beyond the boundaries of what is already known. The French historian Alain Corbin has shown that this is possible even in those cases in which only a few official data are available (Auf den Spuren eines Ungekannten. Ein Historiker rekonstruiert ein ganz gewöhnliches Leben. Campus: Frankfurt/New York 1999).


Why did G. Weber go 'towards America' ?

G. Weber was born in 1803 in a tenant's cabin in Barenau near the villages of Engter and Kalkriese. This area is historically significant because Hermann the Cheruscan and his Germanic army may have wiped out the Roman troops in the Battle of Varus in 9 AD (www.kalkriese-varusschlacht.de; www.arminius-varusschlacht.de). This disastrous battle which was actually a 'massacre' is still being laboriously reconstructed on the basis of archaeological finds. It reminds me of Alain Cobain's successful attempt to spot the Community of Origny-le-Butin and Louis-Francois Pinaget (20 June 1798 -31 January 1876) in the records of the Registry Office of the French Department of Orne "with closed eyes". In contrast to G. Weber, Pinagot had not left behind any documented trails and definitely not a “short description”).

It seems that G.Weber's birth – along with some other dates within a specific period - was not entered in the church records of Barenau or Engter. The last but one entry in the 'Register of Copulated Pairs' is the marriage of Weber's parents Simon Amelius Weber and Margrethe Charlotte Grünemanns on July 7, 1785. Data about Weber that have not yet been acquired include: the Records of Confirmands, data on the time he spent as a baker's apprentice in Minden, on his 10-year travels as a baker's journeyman in Germany and in The Netherlands and data on the time he worked as an administrative officer in Bohmte.


We don't know why G. Weber went 'towards America' 'with little money in his pockets but was always of good cheer'.

The framework conditions can be easily outlined:
               „Heww`n up den Harwst wi noch kein Dack,    “If we don't have a roof over our head
               Denn treck wie furt mit Sack un Pack,                in fall, we will move away with bag and baggage,
               Denn treck w` de Kramersdörper nah,                and we will take those from Krämersdorf along
               Denn gahn wi nah Amerika.“                             we will go to America.”


Social structures and institutions may definitely be regarded as factors which induced people to emigrate. But although many people were affected by those factors, not all of them emigrated. It appears that the decision to emigrate is made at a very personal level. It is difficult to determine to what extent prevailing structures (e.g. sovereign authorities and ownership conditions), existing institutions (e.g. administrations, legal regulations and specific behavioral traditions) and personal situations (including coincidental factors like preferences, crop failures) impacted the decision to emigrate. This can only be reconstructed in retrospect, influenced of political and social theories. If it is assumed that mostly existing structures induced citizens to leave the country, emigration is primarily viewed as forced behaviour. If, however, the personal motives of those leaving the country are viewed as the main reason for emigration, the emigrants are looked upon as independent citizens who make their own decisions. Those who believe that existing structures and institutions made many people leave their home country, generally have a wider knowledge of prevailing conditions than those who are directly affected by them. Those who believe that the people who emigrated mostly did so for personal reasons, are not entirely sure about this, especially because most emigrants have only provided little  information about what actually made them leave the country.


What the “short description” (“Kurtze beschreibung”) provides

G. Weber did not specify his reasons for emigrating. Purposefully he and his co-travellers from Bohmte and its surroundings set off to Fort Wayne, a small place in the boondocks of north-eastern Indiana where thousands of people found work in channel construction which had just been started.
Weber' report on this period can only be complemented by referring to some insufficient data that are available about this time span. The information on emigration in the year 1834 provided by the authorities of the Wittlage-Hunteburg County (“Bericht des Amtes Wittlage Hunteburg, den 15ten November 1834, betreffend die Auswanderung nach Amerika im Jahre 1834”) only includes figures, but does not give any names: in total 275 people left the area in 1834, among them 60 single men, 11 single women and 49 families with 204 members. The authorities of the Wittlage-Hunteburg County estimated that the "rough capital assets" which the emigrants took away to America amounted to 27,506 thalers. (State Archive, Osnabrück)

G. Weber indicated  that he paid 45 talers for the passage to America. In an advertisement publihsed in the “Osnabrückischen Öffentlichen Anzeigen" on February 12, 1834 the "Schiffsmärkler J.D. Lüdering" stated an average price of 38 gold thalers. We don't know who else travelled to America on board the "Eleonore&Henriette" along with G. Weber (It seems that the passenger list is no longer available.) but from a report that appeared in the "Oldenburgische Blätter" on March 10, 1835 we know that 100 people were on board the brig "Eleonore&Henriette". The report states that the vessel had left Bremerhaven on April 20, 1834 and had arrived in New York on May 23rd

40 years later G. Weber remembered that "80 people without children from Bohmte alone" had gone to America with him. They had left the place "on Easter Monday (March 31, 1834)…. accompanied by music".On the eve of April 10, 1834 G. Weber saw the "Shenandoah" which had run aground in the mouth of the Weser river. It appeared that no help was provided. He presumed that 125 passengers died in the accident but according to the “official in charge at Bremerhaven” 162 of the 192 passengers were rescued (Bremen State Archive). 

In New York they boarded a ship up the Hudson river to Albany, then on the Erie-Canal (83 locks) boarding tow-boats up to Buffalo at the bank of the Lake Erie, and from there crossing the lake to Toledo and with canoes or pirogues up-stream the Maumee river to Fort Wayne.

In Fort Wayne no trace has been found of G. Weber and no information can be found on his co-travellers either because the passenger list giving their names is no longer available. The first German Lutheran community was not set up until in 1837 and neither newspaper articles nor community records do provide any information on the immigrants from Bohmte.

In his report G. Weber mentions hard work which is only poorly paid and many of his fellows from Bohmte died of a fever. These statements are endorsed by letters written by an Anglican priest who also mentioned a number of deaths, but dismissed the possibility that the people in Fort Wayne died of the Cholera epidemic that was raging in the country at the time. Weber also fell ill and only recovered slowly. Eventually he found work in a canteen. In the fall of 1834 he went to Cincinnati.


 This city was viewed as the tempting "queen of the West" on the Ohio. For many it was the starting point from where many set out to finally settle in Ohio, Indiana or Illinois – the states that formed the Western frontier at the time because the West ended at the Mississippi river. Behind this river was the land the Indians had been promised ("for as long as the grass grows and the waters flow"). In 1830 5% of the 24,000 inhabitants of Cincinnati were of German origin. By 1850 their number had risen to almost 50,000 out of about 160,000. G. Weber found work in a quarry and a short time later he worked at Shoenberger's hardware store at Public Landing – the 'harbour' area of Cincinnati. The Shoenberger family was first class in Pennsylvania's steel industry which was based around Pittsburgh and was now opening up the blossoming markets down the Ohio and the Mississippi  river up to St. Louis and Memphis. For 20 years G. Weber held the function of a chief 'assistant' to this branch of the German-American Shoenberger family. Soon after he had taken up his job there he managed the Schoenberger's business affairs at the lively public landing, he went hunting with his employer and his children.



He saw the construction of the Shoenberger manor (1867 at 440 Lafayette Avenue at Clifton, now “Scarlet Oaks Retirement Community”: http://scarletoaksretirementcommunity.com) with its unhindered view of Spring Grove – the graveyard of Cincinnati's upper middle-class whose members did not belong to the church. This graveyard had been designed as a park by Adolph Strauch (1822-1883), a landscape gardener from Silesia who was supported by the Prince of Pückler. This 'gardener', who had learnt his profession by designing the parks of Muskau and Branitz, also designed the surroundings of Shoenberger manor.


 
December 5, 1880 the Cincinnati Enquirer reported: “Mr. George H. Shoenberger, a retired ‘Iron King’, who lives in a palatial residence at Clifton, is rated at $ 5.000.000”. The New York Times, December 10, 1870 reprinted this information. “CINCINNATI`S RICH MEN. SOME OF ITS CITIZENS WHO ARE CREDITED WITH THE POSSESSION OF MILLIONS”.

As early as in 1873 Gottfried Weber purchased a grave for $ 470 for his entire family in Spring Grove and put an obelisk (Greek for 'small skewer’) on it which was 20 feet tall and cost $ 1,500. "After death everyone will forget and that is just as well. But I think that I have left [my family] something to remember. Therefore I bought this place and set up a nice tombstone…". In doing so G. Weber had bought himself into the upper middle-class. (www.springgrove.org/Cemeteries.shtm > locate a Loved One > Search By Name: First Name: Gottfried; Second Name: Weber > ID 49338.   -   Or to the family grave: Search By Location: Garden: Land; Section, 14; Lot: 7)

G. Weber deals rather harshly with his family. He mentions a quarrel with his sons: “When the children were small it was a pleasure having them, when they were men it was a displeasure”.He also mentions a quarrel with his wife. She had never been a "support" to him. "What has been a burden, continues to be a burden".

G. Weber reports that he visited the Osnabrueck area in 1860 but that he no longer felt good there. Very probably he arrived at New York July 26, 1860, boarding the ship “Bremen”, the first steamer of the Norddeutscher Lloyd. The passenger list has the steerage passenger “Gottf. Weber, 46 years, farmer, Cincinnati” (National Archives, Washington D.C.: Original New York Passenger Lists). He had leased his “Vineyard” (See the next but one paragraph.) since 1859, but not yet sold (1862). Farmer was a reputable profession. Leaving Bremerhaven (July 7, 1860) he was 56 years old. The list offers “46”. It could be a mistake in hearing or an oversight, or he rejuvenated himself.


However, he felt good when he was in Berlin in 1867 when he stayed in the 'Haus Bethanien', a hospital in the Kreuzberg district that was under royal protection run by deaconesses (now: www.kunstraumkreuzberg.de). Albrecht von Graefe (1828-1870) Berlin's famous eye specialist who treated the rich as well as the poor (He was the first to operate eye cataracts.) had treated Weber, and “Sister Julie” had nursed him and had “saved his life'”. He presented her with a golden watch – which was tolerated contrary to existing regulations – and he was officially bidden farewell during a church service.   -   We found his passenger list: leaving Bremerhaven August 11, 1867, he arrived at New York August 29 on board of the American paddle-steamer “Northern Light”, together with his son Wilhelm. (National Archives, Washington D.C.: Original New York Passenger Lists). The passenger list reports, that Gottfried Weber was “60” years old. Leaving Bremerhaven (August 10/11, 1867) he was 64 years old.

Weber also mentions a "vineyard" which he had owned between 1850-1862 and had sold with a profit (of $ 2000) although the vine pest had ruined the experiment of growing wine on the Ohio river some Germans had engaged in. Fortunately the pest did not cross the Atlantic Ocean and spread in Europe.

After this short intermezzo Weber reverted to the hardware business, just in time before the Civil War (1861-1865) broke out. Now he ran his own store which was located in a convenient place (on Main Street), not far from the German quarter "Over the Rhine" (north of the soiled Miami-Erie Canal) and very close to the state of Kentucky, a state which did not take sides in the Civil War and was famous for trading and bootlegging: "You have to make hay while the sun shines". His reward was a heavy toll. The 1860 Census reports $ 15.000 value of real estates and $ 500 value of personal estates, the 1870 Census $ 40.000 respectively $ 200.000 (National Archives, Washington D.C.: Census 1860, 1870). 

In 1862 he had his own hardware store at 360 Main Street, between 8. and 9. Street (now Central Parking: http://maps.google.comSatellit > Street View: 842 Main St., Cincinnati, Ohio, Hamilton, United States). In 1863 he bought this site (Store and home) and paid $ 1.500 (Hamilton County Courthouse: Deed Book). In 1865 Williams’ Cincinnati Directory has this notice: “Weber & Co., (Gottfreid W. & Geo., W. W. W.), Dealers in Hardware, Iron, Nails and Steel, 360 Main”. In 1867 his sons Wilhelm, Martin and George have the store, and they buy the site Main / 9. Street. In 1914 their heirs sell it to The Second National Bank for the amount of $ 20.000 (Deed Book). The building is still there (http://maps.google.comSatellit > Street View: 872 Main St., Cincinnati, Ohio, Hamilton, United States).

In 1864 Gottfried Weber bought 2 residences, close to the store, 8. St. (No. 14/16 West), between Main and Walnut, not in the German quarter “Over the Rhine” (north of the soiled Miami-Erie Canal), but downtown in an Anglo-Saxon neighbourhood. He paid $ 13.000 (Deed Book): “The business was good and we made a lot of money”. Not infrequently pretty often he may stopped for refreshment together with customers at Simon Arnold’s Saloon, since 1861 at 8. St., (now 210 East), within walking distance to his store and his home. The building and it’s furnishings are still much the same as in 1861 (www.arnoldsbarandgrill.com).

Everyday life in Cincinnati is disregarded in Weber's written accounts. He does not mention his service as a firefighter, the riots against the Irish and the Germans staged by native Americans who opposed mass immigration by poor and very poor Europeans and he does not mention the Democratic Party's opposition to the war either. In his description he verbally attacks the Party but these attacks are actually targeted at the party's Catholic clientele. Weber sided with Abraham Lincoln and the Republican Party: - he became a rich man.


What the “short description” (“Kurtze beschreibung”) does not provide

The facts that are presented in the following either did not cross Weber's mind in 1877 or he kept quiet about them for good reasons. We do not know about this.

As regards his tax payments, for example: It must be stated that no trace of them was found in Cincinnati. They may have been lost in the burning of the Hamilton County Courthouse in 1884 when a raging mob stormed the building after a supposed racist judgement in a murder trial had been rendered in favour of a German citizen.

Weber's wedding, for example: On February 27, 1835 Weber married Cathr. Elisabeth Boje who originated from “Herde (?) near Osnabrück”. It can be assumed that he already met her in Germany because he married her shortly after his arrival in Cincinnati in St. Johannes, a German Lutheran and Reformed Church. They did not 'have to marry': Their eldest son, Martin, was not born until February 15, 1836.

Weber's founding of a congregation, for example: Weber was one of those who founded the Lutheran “Low-German Church” (vernacular), i.e. the “North German Lutheran Church” (Walnut St. / 9. St.; not preserved) that had emerged from the “German Lutheran and Reformed St. Johannes congregation” (Since 1868 Elm St. / 12. St.: http://maps.google.com  > Satellit > Street View: 1222 Elm St., Cincinnati, Ohio, United States):

"Owing to the dispute of 1838 … no one can be elected to the consistory who is not able to speak Low German", the founding fathers stated in their 'Constitution'. The congregation of St. Johannes responded immediately by revising its 'Constitution' in 1839: "To preclude any provincial prejudices, the parish considers it necessary to only elect 3 members from one province to the consistory. But all North Germans together only form one province”.

In 1845 Weber once again gets involved when more liberal church members separate from the North German Lutherans: "§2: The owners of the church call themselves: ‘German Evangelical Congregation of St. Paul’. They may either avow themselves to the Lutheran or to the Reformist Church". In his description Weber does not comment on his activities as a keeper of finances in the consistory. In 1850 he voted against a new church building (Since 1851 Race St. / 15. St.: http://maps.google.com > Satellit > Street View: 1448 Race St., Cincinnati, Ohio, United States). He went back to St. Johannes: In 1890 his name is in the register of deaths of this congregation (September 29, 1890).

Weber's founding membership in the "German Pioneer Association of Cincinnati” (“Deutscher Pionier-Verein von Cincinnati” (1869), for example (online) For several years Weber was the treasurer of this association. The publication regularly issued by the association was "Der Deutsche Pioneer".  These 18 volumes provide ample information on the history of the first German immigrants in the Mid-West. § 2 of the 'Constitution' states that "Every German immigrant who has lived for at least 25 years in Cincinnati or its surroundings and has reached the age of 40 can be admitted … if the members approve by popular vote." Because of this stipulation the German 48ers who were considered armchair culprits by many farmers, craftsmen and traders, could not join the association – at least not for a period of 4 years:


"Oh yes, promote German customs!
Neither politics nor religion
Should ever be the warriors' motive to fight
or the matter of discussion.
No, Strengthen close ties!
Happily link them up with your experience!
The shout rings out far and wide all over the country:
Hurrah to the German Pioneer Association!"

(“Ja fördert Ihr die deutsche Sitte!
Nicht Politik, nicht Religion
Sei jemals in der Kämpen Mitte
Der Gegenstand der Discussion.
Nein! Festigt enge Bande!
Webt das Erlebte froh hinein!
Weit klingt der Ruf im ganzen Lande:
Hoch deutschem Pionierverein!“)

Weber's American version of the "Song from America” (“Lied aus Amerika”), for example: In 1875 Weber read out the "Song from America" to the Pioneer Association (online):

“Hail to Columbus, be praised,
Be greatly honored for ever!
You showed us a way which can free us
From severe bondage, if we dare
To renounce our home country.”


(“Heil Dir Columbus, sei gepriesen,
Sei hoch gelobt in Ewigkeit!
Du hast uns einen Weg gewiesen,
Der uns aus harter Dienstbarkeit
Erretten kann, wenn man es wagt
Und seinem Vaterland entsagt.“)

In February 1833 nearly identical 49 stanzas of this song (online) circulated in the Osnabrück area: It was supposedly composed by "Franz Lahmeyer" under the title "Sinnreiche Einfälle in Stunden froher Laune über mein Vaterland Europa verglichen mit den vereinten Amerikanischen Staaten, gewidmet für meine europäischen Freunde im Königreich Hanover" (“Meaningful ideas in times of high spirits on my homeland Europe compared with the United States of America, dedicated to my European friends in the Kingdom of Hanover”). The "land dragon Lange" told his colonel that the song spread particularly widely in the “Wittlage-Hunteburg County", that it described "the major advantages of America over the German constitution" and that it could only be used to stir civil unrest … or it could be intrepreted as an encouragement to leave one's home country because the current spirit of the time (“Zeitgeist”) (was) particularly susceptible to something like this". In May 1833 the "British-Hanovarian Ministry of the Interior" responded to this in an unperturbed manner: On occasion the poem was to be "confiscated" and then “the owners of these verses are to be informed in a suitable way about its shameful content and negative notion" (State Archive, Osnabrück). "But when printed copies were no longer available, several hundred copies were written secretly and whenever the blokes in the pubs were sure that they were not under observation by the police they started to sing: Hail to Columbus, Columbus be praised."
This is what Heinrich Arminius Rattermann, “editor” of the “German Pioneer”, who originated from Ankum (Landdrostei Osnabrück), wrote when he published G. Weber's "only available specimen, obviously [copied] with errors, with minor changes in order to make it easier to sing, however without changing its original tone". The "poem" which is "extremely inadequate in terms of orthography and syntax" is to have "induced many young people from the Oldenburg and Osnabrueck area to emigrate in the 1830s". Rattermann wrote that Franz Joseph Stallo from Damme, who got this song from a friend in America in 1831, distributed the poem. After some months in jail, Rattermann wrote, he emigrated to the USA in the fall of 1831, arriving at Philadelphia. But we know that he left Germany at the end of April 1831 with the ship “Juno”, arriving at New York June 22, 1831 (National Archives Microfilm Publications, M 237, Roll 14). G Weber brought one copy of the poem to America where he kept it for 40 years. It could have been a copy of the Stallo-song or a copy of the Lahmeyer-song (online).


Orbituary

G. Weber chose to cover other topics in his “short description” ("Kurtze beschreibung") and emphasized other aspects than those stressed in the obituary about him which the German Pioneer Association published in 1890, at a time when “Der Deutsche Pionier” no longer appeared on a monthly basis but was issued as a yearbook (“Vorstandsbericht”).

Martin Gottfried Weber
1803 - 1890

How modest the late pioneer Manfred Gottfried Weber was may be derived from the fact that only few people knew something about his life course and yet hundreds of them experienced proofs of his philantropy. Mr. Weber was charitable in the truest sense of the word. The right and gave and the left hand didn't know and he tried to keep his benevolence a secret. It sufficed him to know that he had done good and to have made others happy.
Manfred Gottfried Weber was born in Hannover on 21. June 1803; later on he attended primary school (“Volksschule”) and in 1821 he went to Cincinnati. At first he worked on the Miami Canal and in Fort Wayne and for a long time he had to live on a wage of 50 cents per day. The hard work he did made him sick but eventually the patient' his strong constitution prevailed. Barely recovered he returned to Cincinnati where he found a more profitable job and in May 1835 he married Miss Elisabeth Boeser. Three sons issued from this happy marriage, one of whom preceded his father in death in 1886.
At first Mr. Weber found a job at Schönberger's hardware store where he worked for 20 years. Then he moved to a farm on Baltimore Pike where he lived for five years. After this time he returned to Cincinnati where he set up his own hardware store on Main [Street] near Ninth Street, together with J.N. Newman. This occurred in the year 1862.
Four years later he bought Newman's share of the company, associated with one of his sons and after another ten years he completely retired from business. The 2 sons who survived him managed the business, which was still located in the same place and they were quite successful.
In 1883 Mr. Weber celebrated his Golden Wedding Anniversary which was a rare occasion at the time. After a short illness he died on 29. September 1890 and the Pioneer Association paid him their last respects. In his younger years he was an avid member of the old fire-brigade department and continued to be a member until the present department was set up. Mr. Weber ws one of its founders and he was the first long-term treasurer of the Pioneer Association.

(Vorstandsbericht des Deutschen Pionier-Vereins 23 (1890/91), 16; translation)

Different pictures are painted although the same data were used. It seems that in retrospect but also by lack of knowledge many things were distorted. As regards the time of Weber's emigration (1834, and not 1821!), for instance, he did not go first to Cincinnati, but to Fort Wayne. And he married in February 1835 and not in May of that year (Family register, St. Paul, 1845). The maiden name of his wife-to-be was not Boeser but Boje. And it was not a happy marriage tie. And his service of a firefighter lasted only from January 1844 to April 1846. He was “afflicted with a disease in his chest” (Cincinnati Museum Center).

A final remark

This report produced in my 'workshop' may have given one or the other an idea of how far the contextual range of Gottfried Weber's life can be extended. It allows for different combinations of the threads of his life as well as for giving different levels of significance to decisive incidents in his life. In addition to this, a wide contextual range also provides the basis for presenting different life portraits, i.e. different constructions of his life. Hence it seems advisable to use the subjunctive tense in memoirs, obituaries or biographies in order to illustrate the tentative nature of what is said.

I wrote this report to point out how important it is to produce one's own reconstructions – with the subjunctive tense at the back of one's mind – sot that they can be used as a genealogical 'reservatio mentalis'.

[This delivery, now revised in 2010, has been published first in: Die Maus, Gesellschaft für Familienforschung e. V. (Hg.): Genealogie und Auswanderung: Über Bremen in die Welt; Grußworte und Vorträge zum 54. Deutschen Genealogentag in Bremen. Clausthal-Zellerfeld: Papierflieger 2002, 59-70. The version of 2002 is available online:  www.genealogienetz.de/vereine/maus/blaetter/dgt2002_seite_59-70.pdf.  Documents, which belong to this outline, are in the Research Center German Emigrants in the USA (DAUSA). The “Kurtze beschreibung”, with an introduction, profusely illustrated and with many notes, will be published in the not-to-distant future.  -   Sabine Osterkamp, Oldenburg University, translated this delivery.]

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